Биография лауры джейн аддамс

Чикаго XIX века

Чикаго был оплотом прогресса в конце 1800-х годов, а после Великого пожара в Чикаго в 1871 году его границы расширились как по вертикали, так и по горизонтали. Дом страхования жилья претендовал на звание самого высокого здания (десять этажей) и стал первым в мире небоскребом. Бизнес-магнаты Джордж Пуллман, Маршалл Филд и Филлип Армор называли Чикаго своим домом и обеспечивали его жителей множеством рабочих мест. К сожалению, бума в сфере недвижимости, производства и транспорта было недостаточно, чтобы обеспечить работой массу иммигрантов, прибывающих в город в надежде осуществить свои мечты. Бедность была в изобилии, и в ответ Джейн и Эмма занялись нуждами людей, живущих в промышленных кварталах города.


Addams died of cancer on May 21, 1935, in Chicago. Her 12 books include Democracy and Social Ethics (1902) and Newer Ideals of Peace (1907), as well as two influential autobiographies, Twenty Years at Hull House (1910), and The Second Twenty Years at Hull House (1930). She wrote over 500 essays, speeches, and other works; a letterpress edition of Addams’ letters and publications is underway. Her achievements are commemorated by the Jane Addams College of Social Work, a unit of the University of Illinois, Chicago. Hull House is a museum, located on the university campus. Her reputation declined after 1960 as critics portrayed her an unoriginal racist determined to civilize helpless immigrants. After 1990 the pendulum swung in her favor and numerous favorable biographies have appeared.

The I-90 memorial tollway stretching from northwest Chicago to Wisconsin is named in her honor.


  1. Knight (1998)
  2. Elshtain (2002). For some years previously Catholic nuns at Holy Family Parish had operated social welfare services in the same neighborhood. Hull House represented the first Protestant activity. See Ellen Skerrett, «The Irish Of Chicago’s Hull-House Neighborhood.» Chicago History 2001 30(1): 22-63. Issn: 0272-8540
  3. Platt (2000)
  4. Addams, 1909, p. 96
  5. See Hamington (2007)
  6. Alonzo (2003)
  7. Allison. Sobek, «How Did the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom Campaign against Chemical Warfare, 1915-1930?» Women And Social Movements In The United States, 1600-2000 2001 5(0).
  8. Sklar (2003)
  9. Kathryn Kish Sklar, et al. eds. «How Did Changes In The Built Environment At Hull-House Reflect The Settlement’s Interaction With Its Neighbors, 1889-1912?» Women And Social Movements In The United States, 1600-2000 2004 8(4).
  10. Elshtain (2002) p. 157
  11. Eileen Maura McGurty, «Trashy Women: Gender and the Politics of Garbage in Chicago, 1890-1917.» Historical Geography 1998 26: 27-43. Issn: 1091-6458
  12. Knight (2005)
  13. Scherman (1999)
  14. Ostman (2004)

World Peace

Addams was a major synthesizing figure in the domestic and international peace movements, serving as both a figurehead and leading theoretician; she was influenced especially by Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy and by the pragmatism of philosophers John Dewey and George Herbert Mead. She saw democracy, social justice and peace as mutually reinforcing; they all had to advance together to achieve any one. Addams became an anti-war activist from 1899, as part of the anti-imperialist movement that followed the Spanish–American War. In 1912 she helped found the Progressive Party and supported the presidential campaign of Theodore Roosevelt, even though his platform called for building more battleships.

Her book Newer Ideals of Peace (1907) reshaped the peace movement worldwide to include ideals of social justice. She recruited social justice reformers like Alice Hamilton, Lillian Wald, Florence Kelley, and Emily Balch to join her in the new international women’s peace movement after 1914. Addams’s work came to fruition after World War I, when major institutional bodies began to link peace with social justice and probe the underlying causes of war and conflict. After 1915 Addams, who never married, centered her interests in the peace movement. She was a leader at the International Congress of Women at The Hague, Holland, in 1915 and presided at the first meeting of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1919, which she served as president.

She damned war as a cataclysm that undermined human kindness, solidarity, civic friendship, and caused families across the world to struggle. In turn her views were denounced by patriotic groups during World War I (1917–18). In one major speech she suggested that armies gave liquor to soldiers just before attacking, which brought a wave of ridicule on her. Even after the war the WILPF’s program of peace and disarmament was characterized by opponents as radical, Communist-influenced, unpatriotic, and unfeminine. Young veterans in the American Legion, supported by some members of the Daughters of the American Revolution and the League of Women Voters, were ill-prepared to confront the older, better-educated, more financially secure and nationally famous women of the WILPF.

The Legion’s efforts to portray the WILPF members as dangerously naive females resonated with working class audiences, but President Calvin Coolidge and the middle classes supported Addams and her WILPF efforts in the 1920s to prohibit poison gas and outlaw war. After 1920, however, she was widely regarded as the greatest woman of the Progressive Era. In 1931 she shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Nicholas Murray Butler.


Addams wrote eleven books and many pamphlets. Among them:

  • Addams, Jane. 1902. Democracy and Social Ethics. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Addams, Jane. 1905. Children in American Street Trades. New York, NY: National Child Labor Committee.
  • Addams, Jane. 1907. New Ideals of Peace. Chautauqua, NY: Chautauqua Press.
  • Addams, Jane. 1910. The Wage-Earning Woman and the State. Boston, MA: Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government.
  • Addams, Jane. 1911. Symposium: Child Labor on the Stage. New York, NY: National Child Labor Committee.
  • Addams, Jane. 1912. Twenty Years at Hull-House, with autobiographical notes. New York, NY: McMillan Publishers. ISBN 1406504920
  • Addams, Jane. 1917. Patriotism and Pacifists in War Time.
  • Addams, Jane. 1922. Peace and Bread in Time of War. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252070933
  • Addams, Jane. 1923. A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishers.


Jane Addams was the first American woman to receive the Nobel Prize for Peace, but that hardly touches on the extent of change that came as a result of this one woman’s effort. She brought about a change in attitude toward those less fortunate and opened a world to those previously without hope. Hull House brought the first public playground and swimming pool, but also brought art, music and theater to the underprivileged. Even Addams’ efforts to make the garbage men accountable (by walking behind their trucks as they went on their rounds) created a change in attitude toward the environment.

Through her work at Hull House and extensive notes about the people of the area, Addams made a major contribution to the field of sociology as well as providing historical documentation about life in Chicago at that time. More profoundly, her legacy lies in the legal changes related to child labor, mandatory education, and the establishment of juvenile courts. She had significant effects on the working conditions for both women and men. Her work with women suffrage, the NAACP and the ACLU also created lasting change. Although she was not able to establish peace during the First World War, her ideas still seem timely.

Jane Addams on a U.S. postage stamp of 1940

The work of Jane Addams is inspirational in its magnitude and her words bring awareness of the depth of heart this woman had for humanity. In her essay, Democracy and Social Ethics, she discussed the importance of being concerned about society and even the world, instead of just attending to one’s own family:

As a force for righteousness and high moral standards, Jane Addams set an example worthy of emulation. A U.S. postage stamp was issued in her honor. Although Hull House itself had to relocate when the University of Illinois established its Chicago campus, the original residence has been preserved as a museum and monument to Jane Addams.

Hull House

For a more detailed treatment, see Hull House.

In September 1889, Addams and a friend, Ellen Gates Starr, moved into an 1850s mansion built by banker Charles Hull, but located in a neighborhood that had become a crowded multi-ethnic slum on the near West Side of Chicago controlled by local political bosses. At one point she ran for alderman against the local boss, Johnnie Powers, and lost. Hull House, as Addams named it, became America’s best known settlement house. She used Hull House to generate system-directed change—to keep families safe, community and societal conditions must be improved.

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После того, что казалось бесконечным поиском, две женщины наткнулись на особняк Чарльза Халла, построенный в 1856 году. Особняк, расположенный в Полк и Холстед, когда-то был домом для Чарльза Дж. Халла, богатого застройщика, был безлюдным, просторным и сдаётся в аренду. Он также был обветшалым и, по слухам, населен привидениями.

Рассказы о сверхъестественном приводили многочисленных посетителей к дверям поселения только для того, чтобы их отворачивать. Но история о «дьявольском младенце» с раздвоенными копытами, хвостом и рогами будет продолжать циркулировать и в конечном итоге выйдет на большой экран Голливуда… под названием «Ребенок Розмари».

Вначале основной целью Аддамса было уменьшить влияние бедности на менее удачливых. Двери Hull House были открыты для всех. Эмма и Джейн считали, что в районе Ближнего Вестсайда можно добиться положительных изменений, которые принесут пользу всем. То, что они были правы в своих убеждениях, — ничего не сказать, и в течение года Халл-Хаус будет посещать более 2000 человек в неделю.

Халл Хаус предоставлял еду голодным, одежду для нуждающихся и медицинскую помощь больным и усталым. Множество различных этнических групп узнали друг о друге и друг от друга, в то время как 50 000 жителей 19-го прихода не могли говорить по-английски. Со временем поселение Халл Хаус расширится и включит в себя тринадцать отдельных зданий, в том числе баню, спортзал, женское жилье и первый детский сад в Чикаго. Его сотрудники работали и жили на территории.

К 1920 году по всей Америке будет основано пятьсот поселений на основе прототипа Корпуса. Джейн Аддамс останется в Халл-Хаусе и будет его главой до своей смерти в 1935 году; Халл Хаус продолжал свое наследие и предоставлял услуги в этом районе, пока его не отодвинули, чтобы освободить место для кампуса Университета Иллинойса в 1960-х годах. Ассоциация Джейн Аддамс Халл Хаус действовала до января 2012 года, когда прекратила свою деятельность.

Сегодня Дом-музей Джейн Аддамс открыт для публики, и посетители могут осмотреть два оригинальных здания поселения; Корпусный дом и столовая резидента. Групповые туры приветствуются.

Джейн Аддамс: биография социального реформатора

Джейн Аддамс родилась 6 сентября 1860 года. Дочь Сары Вебер и Джона Хая Аддамса, республиканского политика и американского бизнесмена. Она была младшей из пяти детей и воспитывалась на заре гражданской войны в маленьком городке к северу от Иллинойса. Его мать умерла, когда Джейн было всего два года, в то время как его отец служил от рук Авраама Линкольна в качестве государственного сенатора Республиканской партии во второй половине XIX века.

От влияний ее социального и семейного окружения, Джейн Аддамс был сформирован между ценностями и принципами, такими как ответственность сообщества , права человека и цивилизационная связь христианской этики и искусства.

Кроме того, она была частью первого поколения женщин, которые имели доступ к образованию высокого уровня, в Рокфордской женской семинарии, с 1877 по 1881 год. Фактически, она была первой студенткой, получившей официальную степень в этом университете.

Это был социальный контекст, который открывал школы для женщин, что частично отвечало их потребностям в автономии и профессиональном развитии, хотя в конечном итоге это не давало много возможностей для общественных занятий. В то же время Джейн Аддамс жила в семейном контексте, где ожидалось, что младшая дочь позаботится о доме .

Как и другие женщины, которые жили в схожих условиях, Джейн Аддамс годами сталкивалась с различными психическими и соматическими дискомфортами, что, среди прочего, привело к развитию ее философии и активности. Особенно он работал с Эллен Гейтс Старр, которая также училась в Рокфорде и разделяла его интерес к укреплению общественной и социальной поддержки. Кроме того, он хорошо понимал напряженность, с которой сталкивались женщины. Плод этого последнего был создание первой социальной и прогрессивной резиденции в Соединенных Штатах: Hull House .

Семейный императив

В разгар высоких внутренних требований к женщинам Джейн Аддамс находилась в напряжении между преследованием ее желания реформировать социальную поддержку в общественной сфере; и социальное одобрение, требования которого пошли в противоположном направлении.

После того, как они отказались от своих профессиональных проектов и от конфликтов, которые это породило, и она, и другие женщины того же возраста прошли курс лечения назначенный доктором Вейром Митчеллом, и это заключалось в том, чтобы провести некоторое время в постели. Позже сама Аддамс объяснила, что оказалась в парализующей ситуации между тем, что она назвала «императивом семьи», сосредоточенным на культе домашнего хозяйства; и стремление к автономной жизни, посвященной социальной активности (García Dauder, 2005).

Лекарство от Джейн Аддамс пришло не столько из-за отдыха, сколько из-за того, что в итоге она ушла в отставку и нашла вместе с Эллен Гейт Старр Дом Халл. Он также посвятил себя написанию и развитию философская линия, связанная с социальным прогрессом, эмансипацией женщин, разнообразием Этика заботы и действий ради мира.

Дом Корпуса: «Дом для приседаний»?

Дом Халл был назван потому, что он был установлен в резиденции, расположенной в рабочем районе иммигрантов в Чикаго. Эта резиденция была бесплатной и была построена Чарльзом Халлом в 1856 году.

Они переехали в него в 1889 году и постепенно росли, достигнув нескольких зданий, в которых находились детский сад, тренажерный зал, общественная кухня, места для встреч работающих девушек, рабочие и учебные мастерские, а также различные игровые площадки. Все доступное населению района, большинство иммигрантов , Это было также важным местом встречи для различных работников и социальных реформаторов того времени, которые стали жить в одном центре и сотрудничать со своими задачами.

Политическое влияние и общественное признание

Работы Аддамса повлияло на законы об условиях труда женщин и детей осмотр заводов и требования справедливости для женщин, черного населения и иммигрантов. В 1910 году Аддамс была первой женщиной-президентом Национальной конференции социальной работы; в 1915 году она была президентом Международного конгресса женщин в Гааге, а в 1931 году она стала первым лауреатом Нобелевской премии мира.

В настоящее время Халл-Хаус стал музеем, посвященным Джейн Аддамс и женщинам, которые работали вместе для образования и социального развития.

Ранние годы

Джейн родилась в Седарвилле, штат Иллинойс, и была младшей дочерью в семье. Ее мать Сара скончалась, когда Джейн было всего три года. После смерти матери старшая сестра Джейн Марта взяла на себя роль опекуна, но вскоре Джейн стала тенью своего отца. Она работала вместе с ним на мельнице и стала ненасытной читательницей. Только последующий повторный брак Джона Аддамса в 1868 году разделил их двоих, разделение, которое заставило ее возмутиться своей новой мачехой.

Во время брака Джон и Сара Аддамс договорились, что их дочери будут учиться в колледже. Первым выбором Джейн были восточные колледжи Маунт-Холиок или Смит. Тем не менее она пойдет по стопам сестер и поступит в женскую семинарию Рокфорда. Находясь там, Джейн занималась всем, от школьной политики до журналистики, и получила высшее образование в классе. Последующие годы будут полны самоанализа, путешествий и открытия того, чем она действительно хотела заниматься в своей жизни, кем она действительно хотела быть.

Джейн Аддамс и Эллен Старр

Addams’ ideals

Addams in 1913 on Capitol Hill

Addams and her colleagues originally intended Hull House as a transmission device to bring the values of the college-educated high culture to the masses, including the Efficiency Movement. However, over time the focus of Hull House changed from bringing art and culture to the neighborhood (as evidenced in the construction of the Butler Building) to responding to the needs of the community by providing childcare, educational opportunities, and large meeting spaces. Hull-House became more than simply a proving ground for the new generation of college-educated, professional women — it also became part of the community in which it was founded, and its development reveals a shared history.
Addams stressed that women—especially middle-class women with leisure and energy, as well as rich philanthropists—had a civic duty to become involved in municipal affairs as a matter of «civic housekeeping.» Addams thereby enlarged the concept of civic duty as part of republicanism to include roles for women beyond republican motherhood (which involved child rearing).

Women’s lives revolved around «responsibility, care, and obligation,» and this area represented the source of women’s power. This notion provided the foundation for the municipal or civil housekeeping role that Addams defined, and gave added weight to the woman suffrage movement that Addams supported. Addams argued that women, as opposed to men, are trained in the delicate matters of human welfare and need to build upon their traditional roles of housekeeping to be civic housekeepers. Enlarged housekeeping duties involved reform efforts regarding poisonous sewage, impure milk (which often carried tuberculosis), smoke-laden air, and unsafe factory conditions. Addams led the «garbage wars»; in 1894 she became the first woman appointed as sanitary inspector of the Chicago 19th ward. With the help of the Hull-House Women’s Club, within a year over 1000 health department violations were reported to city counsel and garbage collection reduced death and disease.

Addams had long discussions with philosopher John Dewey in which they redefined democracy in terms of pragmatism and civic activism, with an emphasis more on duty and less on rights. The two leading perspectives that distinguished Addams and her coalition from the modernizers more concerned with efficiency were the need to extend to social and economic life the democratic structures and practices that had been limited to the political sphere, as in Addams’ programmatic support of trade unions; and second, their call for a new social ethic to supplant the individualist outlook as being no longer adequate in modern society.

Addams’ construction of womanhood involved daughterhood, sexuality, wifehood, and motherhood. In both of her autobiographical volumes, Twenty Years at Hull-House (1910) and The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House (1930), Addams’s gender constructions parallel the Progressive-Era ideology she championed. In A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil (1912) she dissected the social pathology of sex slavery, prostitution and other sexual behaviors, among working-class women in American industrial centers during 1890–1910. Addams’s autobiographical persona manifests her ideology and supports her popularized public activist persona as the «Mother of Social Work,» in the sense that she represents herself as a celibate matron, who served the suffering immigrant masses through Hull-House, as if they were her own children. Although not a mother herself, Addams became the «mother to the nation,» identified with motherhood in the sense of protective care of her people.


Hull House

Jane Addams was educated in the United States and Europe, graduating from the Rockford Female Seminary (now Rockford College) in Rockford, Illinois. While studying there she was encouraged to be a missionary. Ironically, although she didn’t become a missionary in the traditional sense, she established her own mission at Hull House which served society in more ways than most missionaries could expect to do.

She began by starting art, literature, and cooking clubs, and progressed to providing a location for labor unions to meet. She attempted to address injustices as she saw them, dealing with everything from child labor to garbage collection and keeping the streets clean. She fought against women being sold into prostitution and worked to regulate the number of hours women should be allowed to work in factories. However, she did not limit herself to an eight-hour workday: she arose early, and kept such a pace until late in the day that others could not keep up with her. She also encouraged those around her to excel: “If you want to be surrounded by second-rate ability, you will dominate your settlement. If you want the best ability, you must allow great liberty of action among your residents.»

At its height, around two thousand people visited Hull House each week. Its facilities included a night school for adults; kindergarten classes; clubs for older children; a public kitchen; an art gallery; a coffeehouse; a gymnasium; a girls club; a swimming pool; a book bindery; a music school; a drama group; a library; and labor-related divisions.

Hull House also served as a women’s sociological institution. Addams was a friend and colleague to the early members of the Chicago School of Sociology, influencing their thought through her work in applied sociology as well as, in 1893, co-authoring the Hull-House Maps and Papers that came to define the interests and methodologies of the school. She worked with George Herbert Mead on social reform issues including women’s rights and the 1910 Garment Workers’ strike. Although academic sociologists of the time defined her work as «social work,» Addams did not consider herself a social worker. She combined the central concepts of symbolic interactionism with the theories of cultural feminism and pragmatism to form her sociological ideas. (Deegan 1988)

Jane Addams also worked internationally to support women’s suffrage and to establish world peace. As a leader of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, she emphasized that war was in direct contrast to the nurturing of life. In Patriotism and Pacifists in War Time, she wrote:

In addition to her involvement in the American Anti-Imperialist League and the American Sociology Association, she was also a formative member of both the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 1911, she helped establish the National Foundation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers and became its first president. She was also a leader in women’s suffrage and pacifist movements, and took part in the creation of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom in 1915.

Addams was a woman of great integrity, and was highly insulted when she was offered a bribe not to continue to support the unions. She carried out her efforts for world peace despite accusation of being a communist (which she emphatically denied, claiming that she did not even believe in socialism, although her friend Ellen Gates Starr, was a socialist). She held fast to her efforts despite expulsion from the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution). The Nobel Prize committee twice turned her down because she was too radical. In 1931, she was finally awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, together with American educator Nicholas Murray Butler.


Born in Cedarville, Illinois, Jane Addams was the eighth child born to her family, the fifth living child at the time of her birth. When she was two, her mother died shortly after a stillbirth. Her father remarried when she was seven, and she acquired two new brothers. Jane, raised initially by an older sister, almost idolized her father.

Her father, a personal friend of Abraham Lincoln and a Quaker, was a state senator and a community leader. Jane learned from him honesty, humility, and a concern for those less fortunate. In her book Twenty Years at Hull-House (Addams 1912) there is a passage discussing the strength of her conscience concerning lying, and that if she had lied, she would not want her father to die without her having confessed her sin to him.

Although only four at the time, she remembers her father weeping at the death of Abraham Lincoln. There were many families in the community who had lost members during the “great war to end slavery,” and they were well respected (one elderly couple had five sons in the war. Four were killed in battle and the youngest was killed in an accident shortly after returning home, leaving the parents childless.). Later, Jane Addams worked to prevent war from breaking out in Europe and spearheaded pacifist movements both in the United States and other countries.

When she was young, Jane had a severe curvature of the back (later corrected by surgery) and viewed herself as being quite ugly. When guests visited the church they attended, she would pretend to be part of her uncle’s family as she did not wish others to know that such a great man as her father could have such a horrid child. On one occasion when she had a beautiful new dress, her father suggested she not wear it to church because others would feel badly not to have something so fine.

When she was six, her father took her to visit a mill town. Jane was deeply moved by the squalor of the homes there. At that time she determined that when she grew up, she would live in a nice house but it would not be with other nice houses, rather it would be among houses like these. Later when she and Ellen Gates Starr visited Toynbee Hall in the East End of London, she saw a settlement house in action and decided that she would fulfill her dream from long ago. Returning to America, the two women co-founded Hull House in Chicago, Illinois in 1889. It was one of the first settlement houses in the United States, and it provided welfare for the neighborhood’s poor and a center for social reform.

Jane Addams worked tirelessly at Hull House, and with labor unions and other organizations to address problems of poverty and crime, as well as working for women’s suffrage and pacifist movements. Her health began to fail her after a heart attack in 1926, although she continued working, serving as president of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom until 1929, and as honorary president for the remainder of her life. Finally, in 1931, she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace together with Nicholas Murray Butler, but was too ill to accept it in person. She died on May 21, 1935, in Chicago.


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Теоретическое и философское развитие Джейн Аддамс

Джейн Аддамс работала так, чтобы ее теоретическое развитие не отходило от реальности, в которой она жила. И наоборот, я хотел, чтобы последствия его активизма были реальностью на теоретическом уровне. Таким образом, работы Джейн Аддамс полны примеров ее опыта в Доме Халла, и затрагивают необычные темы, начиная от народных рассказов об иммигрантском населении и проституции до сбора мусора (Hamington, 2018).

Из его работы в Hull House, а также из его личного опыта, теоретической точки зрения Аддамс развивает этику заботы, которая не ограничивается отношениями родитель-ребенок , но распространяется на понятие сообщества и социального развития. В результате своей академической деятельности Аддамс опубликовал дюжину книг и более 500 статей, в которых он также важным образом проблематизирует прагматическую традицию Северной Америки, в которой он первоначально обучался.

Библиографические ссылки:

  • Энциклопедия Британника. (2018). Джейн Аддамс Американский социальный реформатор. Получено 4 июля 2018 г. Доступно по адресу: //www.britannica.com/biography/Jane-Addams.
  • Хамингтон, М. (2018). Джейн Аддамс Стэнфордская энциклопедия философии. Получено 3 июля 2018 г. Доступно по адресу: //plato.stanford.edu/entries/addams-jane/.
  • García Dauder, S. (2005). Психология и феминизм. Забытая история пионерской психологии женщин. Нарсеа: Мадрид.

Бисселл В. (2000). Аддамс, Джейн. Американская Национальная Биография Получено 3 июля 2018 года. Доступно по адресу: //www.anb.org/view/10.1093/anb/9780198606697.001.0001/anb-9780198606697-e-1500004.


В возрасте двадцати семи лет Джейн по настоянию семьи отправилась в поездку по Европе вскоре после смерти отца. Ее спутница, Эллен Старр, была школьной подругой. Находясь в Лондоне, две женщины посетили поселок под названием Тойнби-холл, и именно там Джейн и Эллен осознали свое будущее. По возвращении они заявили о своей новой найденной цели, которая заключалась в том, чтобы «обеспечить центр для более высокой гражданской и общественной жизни; учреждать и поддерживать образовательные и благотворительные предприятия, а также исследовать и улучшать условия в промышленных районах Чикаго». (1)

Чикаго — 1871 — Чикаго Файр

Early career

Addams was born in the village of Cedarville, in northern Illinois, on Sept. 6, 1860. Her father, a Yankee, was a prominent Republican politician and supporter of Abraham Lincoln. She early on displayed ambition, a charismatic personality, and a strong sense of moral duty. At nearby Rockford Seminary, which she attended from 1877 to 1881, the conscientiousness tinged with rebellion that characterized her career began to emerge. Valedictorian and president of her class, she helped transform the small Congregational finishing school for women into a degree-conferring college. Addams was a voracious reader in history and philosophy, and tried to start an oratory program for the young women, but the men at other colleges would not recognize it. Elshtain (2002) emphasizes her religiosity, showing that Addams was influenced by Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress and tried to imitate Christ through a «service ethic».

In 1881 Addam’s father died, and after becoming sick and pain-wracked, she decided to undergo painful operations to correct the spinal curvature she had had since birth. She was strapped into a back harness which gave her no mobility for about a year. On her recovery in 1883 Adams traveled through Europe to find her purpose in life. In 1888, the idea of founding a settlement house for the underprivileged came to her. In England she visited Toynbee Hall, London’s famous settlement house in the slums of the city, and consulted the head resident, Canon Samuel A. Barnett on the matter.

Emphasis on children

Hull House stressed the role of children in the Americanization process of new immigrants, and fostered the play movement and the research and service fields of leisure, youth, and human services. Addams argued in The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909) that play and recreation programs are needed because cities are destroying the spirit of youth. Addams feared that cities and factories were killing the spirit of youth; recreation and play were healthy mediums to channel the spirit of youth. Hull-House featured multiple programs in art and drama, kindergarten classes, boys’ and girls’ clubs, language classes, reading groups, college extension courses, along with public baths, a free-speech atmosphere, a gymnasium, a labor museum and playground. They were all designed to foster democratic cooperation and collective action and downplay individualism. She helped pass the first model tenement code and the first factory laws in Illinois.

Addams and her colleagues documented the geography of typhoid fever and reported that poor workers bore the brunt of illness. She identified the political corruption and business avarice that caused the city bureaucracy to ignore health, sanitation, and building codes. Linking environmental justice and municipal reform, she eventually defeated the bosses and fostered a more equitable distribution of city services and modernized inspection practices. Addams spoke of the «undoubted powers of public recreation to bring together the classes of a community in the modern city unhappily so full of devices for keeping them apart.» Addams worked with the Chicago Board of Health and served as the first vice-president of the Playground Association of America.

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