Современная этика, характеристики и представители


Hutcheson is thought to have been born at Drumalig, in the parish of Saintfield, County Down, Northern Ireland, to a Presbyterian minister. He spent six years at the University of Glasgow, first in the study of philosophy, classics, and general literature, and afterwards in the study of theology.

On leaving university, he returned to Northern Ireland, and received a license to preach. When, however, he was about to enter upon the pastorate of a small, dissenting congregation, he changed his plans on the advice of a friend and opened a private academy in Dublin. While residing in Dublin, Hutcheson published anonymously the four essays by which he is best known: the Inquiry concerning Beauty, Order, Harmony and Design, the Inquiry Concerning Moral Good and Evil, in 1725, and the Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections and Illustrations upon the Moral Sense, in 1728. The alterations and additions made in the second edition of these essays were published in a separate form in 1726. To the period of his Dublin residence are also to be referred the Thoughts on Laughter (a criticism of Thomas Hobbes) and the Observations on the Fable of the Bees, being in all six letters contributed to Hibernicus’ Letters, a periodical which appeared in Dublin (1725-1727, 2nd ed. 1734). At the end of the same period occurred the controversy in the London Journal with Gilbert Burnet; on the «True Foundation of Virtue or Moral Goodness.» All these letters were collected in one volume (Glasgow, 1772).

In 1729, Hutcheson succeeded his old master, Gershom Carmichael, in the chair of moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Yet the works on which Hutcheson’s reputation rests had already been published.


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ReferencesISBN links support NWE through referral fees

  • Aschenbrenner, Karl and Arnold Isenberg. Aesthetic Theories: Studies in the Philosophy of Art. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965.
  • Blackstone, William T. Francis Hutcheson and Contemporary Ethical Theory. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1965.
  • Brown, Michael. Francis Hutcheson in Dublin, 1719-30: The Crucible of His Thought. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2002. ISBN 1851826378
  • Carey, Daniel. Locke, Shaftesbury, and Hutcheson: Contesting Diversity in the Enlightenment and Beyond. Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0521845025
  • Fowler, Thomas. Shaftesbury and Hutcheson. Adamant Media Corporation, 2005. ISBN 1402197144
  • Hutcheson, Francis and Wolfgang Leidhold. An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue: In Two Treatises. Indianapolis, Ind: Liberty Fund, 2004. ISBN 0865974284
  • Hutcheson, Francis, et al. Francis Hutcheson: An Inquiry Concerning Beauty, Order, Harmony, Design. Archives internationales d’histoire des idées. Series minor, 9. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973. ISBN 9789024715459
  • Hutcheson, Francis, et al. Logic, Metaphysics, and the Natural Sociability of Mankind. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006. ISBN 0865974462
  • Hutcheson, Francis. An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections; With Illustrations on the Moral Sense. Gainesville, Fla: Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints, 1969. ISBN 0820110582
  • Kivy, Peter. The Seventh Sense: Francis Hutcheson and Eighteenth-Century British Aesthetics. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0199260028
  • Scott, William Robert. Francis Hutcheson: His Life, Teaching And Position In The History Of Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2006. ISBN 1428614796
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.


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Other works

In addition to the works named, the following were published during Hutcheson’s lifetime: A pamphlet entitled Considerations on Patronage (1735); Philosophiae moralis institutio compendiaria, ethices et jurisprudentiae naturalis elementa continens, lib. iii. (Glasgow, 1742); and Metaphysicae synopsis ontologiam et pneumatologiam campleciens (Glasgow, 1742). The last work was published anonymously. After his death, his son, Francis Hutcheson published the longest of his works, A System of Moral Philosophy, in Three Books (2 vols. London, 1755). The only remaining work assigned to Hutcheson is a small treatise on Logic (Glasgow, 1764). This compendium, together with the Compendium of Metaphysics, was republished at Strassburg in 1722.

Notices of Hutcheson occur in histories, both of general philosophy and of moral philosophy, as, for instance, in pt. vii. of Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments; Mackintosh’s Progress of Ethical Philosophy; Cousin, Cours d’histoire de la philosophie morale du XVIII’ siècle; Whewell’s Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England; A Bain’s Mental and Moral Science; Noah Porter’s Appendix to the English translation of Ueberweg’s History of Philosophy; Sir Leslie Stephen’s History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Gentury, etc.

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